Samos is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese. It is also off the coast of Asia Minor, and is separated by the 1.6Km wide Mycale Strait. The island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.

    In ancient times Samos was a particularly rich and powerful city-state. It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named. The philosopher Epicurus was also born here, as well as theastronomer Aristarchus of Samos. Aristarchus was believed to be the first person to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was a well knowntipple in ancient times, and is still produced today.